Alcohol Treatment Centers Adjuntas PR 00601

Alcohol Treatment Centers Adjuntas PR 00601 Click To Call Now 844-291-0669

9163 Valley View Drive
Adjuntas, PR 00601

Alcohol Treatment Centers Adjuntas PR 00601
Alcohol Treatment Centers Adjuntas PR 00601
Alcohol Treatment Centers Adjuntas PR 00601

Addictions Recovery Measurement & the Seven Dimensions Model
Introducing a Multidimensional Recovery Measurement Model for Addictions
The sun was thought to revolve around the earth for 1500 years. It wasn’t until a European astronomer named – Nicolaus Copernicus first formulated a modern heliocentric theory of the solar system that we began to change our thinking. This insight ultimately ushered in a major paradigm shift in astronomy and physics. Every model or viewpoint for recovery maintains the integrity and importance of its own position, often to the exclusion of other explanations. For example, there are recovery models and theories for: biological, psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual viewpoints that can all explain human behavior. Unfortunately, these viewpoints may thus “blind” their adherents to alternative interpretations until some new insight is achieved that resolves the problems left unsolved. It is my hope that the 7 – Dimensions model for addictions recovery measurement is a step towards a “Copernicus” type paradigm shift.
Because human behavior is so complex, an attempt to understand the reasons individuals continue to use, and/ or abuse themselves with substances and/ or maladaptive behavioral addictions to the point of developing self-defeating behavior patterns and/ or other life-style dysfunctions or self-harm is enormously difficult to achieve. Many researchers therefore prefer to speak of risk factors that may contribute, but not be sufficient to cause addictions. They point to an eclectic bio-psychosocial approach that involves the multi-dimensional interactions of genetics, biochemistry, psychology, socio-cultural, and spiritual influences. Risk Factors / Contributory Causes / Influences:
1. Genetics (family history) – is known to play a role in causing susceptibility through such biological avenues as metabolic rates and sensitivity to alcohol and/ or other drugs or addictive behaviors.
2. Biochemistry – the discovery of morphine-like substances called endorphins (runners high, etc.) and the so-called “pleasure pathway” – the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway (MCLP). This is the brain center or possible anatomic site underlying addictions at which alcohol and other drugs stimulate to produce euphoria – which then becomes the desired goal to attain (tolerance – loss of control – withdrawal).
3. Psychological Factors – developmental personality traits, vulnerability to stress, and the desire for tension and symptom reduction from various mental health problems and traumatic life experiences.
Our present healthcare system is set up to focus on acute care rather than chronic illnesses. It focuses on a Unitary Syndrome model in which the sole marker of treatment response or success is specific symptom-reduction. Healthcare consumers are increasingly advocating for a multidimensional model that takes into account an array of life-functioning domains that influence patient treatment progress. Evidenced-based meta-analysis studies also purport the prognostic power of life-functioning variables to predict outcome as well as their importance for treatment planning over a unitary model that has had little empirical support. Accurate diagnosis is also dependent on a thorough multidimensional assessment process along with the possible help of a multidisciplinary treatment team approach. Behavioral Medicine practitioners have come to realize that although a disorder may be primarily physical or primarily psychological in nature, it is always a disorder of the whole person – not just of the body or the mind.
American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)
The American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition”, has set the standard in the field of addiction treatment for recognizing a multidimensional, bio-psychosocial assessment process. ASAM developed the following six dimensions specifically for the addictions field with the intent to provide clinicians with decision-making guidelines for patient placement of care:
1. Acute Intoxication and/ or Withdrawal Potential
2. Biomedical Conditions and Complications
3. Emotional/ Behavioral Conditions and Complications
4. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance
5. Relapse / Continued Use Potential
6. Recovery Environment
The ASAM dimensional delineations were developed to assess severity of illness (alcoholism/ drug addiction). The severity of illness level is then used to determine the match to type and intensity of treatment to help guide placement into one of four levels of care. The dimensional assessments would involve asking if the patient’s daily living activities were significantly impaired to interfere with or distract from abstinence, recovery, and/ or stability treatment goals and efforts.
Seven Dimensions Model
In 2004, the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), was published – describing the following seven life-functioning therapeutic activity dimensions for progress outcome measurements. As can be seen below, the ASAM (Severity of Illness) dimensions do not compete with the seven “Life-functioning” dimensions, but rather add depth in describing the Abstinence/ Relapse – 7th Dimension. Each of the seven dimensions has individualized assessment criteria:
1. Social/ Cultural – Dimension
2. Medical/ Physical – Dimension
3. Mental/ Emotional – Dimension
4. Educational/ Occupational – Dimension
5. Spiritual/ Religious – Dimension
6. Legal/ Financial – Dimension
7. Abstinence/ Relapse – Dimension
a. Acute Intoxication and/ or Withdrawal Potential
b. Biomedical Conditions and Complications
c. Emotional/ Behavioral Conditions and Complications
d. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance
e. Relapse / Continued Use Potential
f. Recovery Environment
Note: These seven dimensions have been delineated in the book entitled, Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (Slobodzien, 2005).
The 7 – Dimension recovery model is not based upon an expanded version of the ASAM dimensions. As noted above, it was initially designed to measure patient progress by assessing therapeutic life-functioning activities. Researched may prove it to be effective as a generalized model for recovery, from all pathological diseases, disorders, and disabilities. It’s multidimensional assessment/ treatment process includes the internal interconnection of multiple dimensions from biomedical to spiritual – taking into account the effects of feedback and the existence of each dimension mutually influencing each other simultaneously. Because of the complexity of human nature, treatment progress needs to be initially tailored and guided by an individualized treatment plan based on a comprehensive bio-psychosocial assessment that identifies specific problems, goals, objectives, methods, and timetables for achieving the goals and objectives of treatment.
Life-style addictions may affect many domains of an individual’s functioning and frequently require multi-modal treatment. Goals of treatment include reduction in the use and effects of substances or achievement of abstinence, reduction in the frequency and severity of relapse, and improvement in psychological and social functioning. Real progress requires time, commitment, and discipline in thinking about it, planning for it, working the plan, and monitoring the successes made to prevent relapse. It also requires appropriate interventions and motivating strategies for each progress area of an individual’s life.
7 – Dimensions is a nonlinear, dynamical, non-hierarchical model that focuses on interactions between multiple risk factors and situational determinants similar to catastrophe and chaos theories in predicting and explaining addictive behaviors and relapse. Multiple influences trigger and operate within high-risk situations and influence the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The process of relapse incorporates the interaction between background factors (e.g., family history, social support, years of possible dependence, and co morbid psychopathology), physiological states (e.g., physical withdrawal), cognitive processes (e.g., self-efficacy, cravings, motivation, the abstinence violation effect, outcome expectancies), and coping skills (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). To put it simply, small changes in an individual’s behavior can result in large qualitative changes at the global level and patterns at the global level of a system emerge solely from numerous little interactions. The clinical utility of the 7 – Dimensions recovery model is in its ability to assist health care providers to quickly gather detailed information about an individual’s personality, background, substance use history, affective state, self-efficacy, and coping skills for prognosis, diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measures.
The 7 – Dimensions hypothesis is that there is a multidimensional synergistically negative resistance that individual’s develop to any one form of treatment to a single dimension of their lives, because the effects of an individual’s addiction have dynamically interacted multi-dimensionally. Having the primary focus on one dimension is insufficient. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have failed to accommodate for the multidimensional synergistically negative effects of an individual having multiple addictions, (e.g. nicotine, alcohol, and obesity, etc.). Behavioral addictions interact negatively with each other and with strategies to improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, decrease functional capacity, and promote social isolation. Most treatment theories today involve assessing other dimensions to identify dual diagnosis or co-morbidity diagnoses, or to assess contributing factors that may play a role in the individual’s primary addiction. The 7 Dimensions’ theory is that a multidimensional treatment plan must be devised addressing the possible multiple addictions identified for each one of an individual’s life dimensions in addition to developing specific goals and objectives for each dimension.
The 7 – Dimensions’ theory promotes a synergistically positive effect that can ignite and set free the human spirit when an individual’s life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic system. The reciprocity between spirituality and multidimensional life functioning progress, establish the deepest intrinsic self-image and behavioral changes. The underlying 7 – Dimensions theory purports that the combination of an individuals’ elevated and balanced multiple life-functioning dimensions can produce a synergistically tenacious, resilient, and spiritually positive individual homeostasis. Just as the combination of alcohol and drugs (for example valium) when taken together produce a synergistic effect (potency effects are not added together, but multiplied), and can develop into an addiction or unbalanced life-style, positive treatment effectiveness and successful outcomes are the result of a synergistic relationship with “The Higher Power.”
The 7 – Dimensions model acknowledges that family genetics, and bio-psychosocial, historical, and developmental conditioning factors are difficult and sometimes impossible to be changed within individuals. The standardized performance-based Addictions Recovery Measurement System philosophy incorporates a bio-psychosocial disease model that focuses on a cognitive behavioral perspective in attempting to alter maladaptive thinking and improve a person’s abilities and behaviors to solve problems and plan for sustained recovery. Many healthcare consumers of addiction recovery services have a genetic pre-dispositional history for addiction. They have suffered and continue to suffer from past traumatic life experiences (e.g. physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, etc.) and often present with psychosocial stressors (e.g. occupational stress, family/ marital problems, etc.) leaving them with intense and confusing feelings (e.g. anger, anxiety, bitterness, fear, guilt, grief, loneliness, depression, and inferiority, etc.) that reinforce their already low self-esteem. The complex interaction of these factors can leave the individual with much deeper mental health problems involving self-hatred, self-punishment, self-denial, low self-control, low self-respect, and a severe low self-esteem condition, with an overall (sometimes hidden) negative self-identity.
The 7 – Dimensions model combines a multidimensional force field analysis of an individual’s unique problems to identify positive strength prognostic factors, with behavioral contracting, and a token-“like”- economy point system to accomplish this task. Force field analysis is a process whereby an individual’s behavior is assessed to determine which are the key forces driving the addictive behaviors and which are the key forces restraining the addictive behaviors. A plan is implemented to identify the positive strength restraining factors to somehow manipulate those forces in order to increase the likelihood of moving an individual’s behavior in a pro-social recovery direction. Kurt Lewin (1947) who originally developed the Force Field Theory argued that an issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces – those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces). Any given social event occurs at a given frequency in a given social context, and the frequency of the event is dependent upon forces acting to increase the event as well as forces acting to decrease the event. At any given point in time, there is a “semi-stable equilibrium” whereby the frequency of the social event will remain the same so long as there is neither change in the number or strength of the forces acting to increase the social event nor any change in the forces acting to decrease the event. Equilibrium is altered in either direction by increasing the frequency or intensity of the driving or the restraining forces and thereby creating a corresponding increase or decrease in the rate of an individual’s “addictive” behaviors.
The long-term goal is the health-consumer’s highest optimal functioning, not merely the absence of pathology or symptom reduction. The short-term goal is to change the health care system to accommodate and assimilate to a multidimensional health care perspective. The 7 – Dimensions model addresses the low self-esteem – “addiction – common denominator” by helping individuals establish values, set and accomplish goals, and monitor successful performance.
Additionally, when we consider that addictions involve unbalanced life-styles operating within semi-stable equilibrium force fields, the 7 – Dimensions philosophy promotes that there is a supernatural-like spiritually synergistic effect that occurs when an individuals’ multiple life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic human system. This bilateral spiritual connectedness reduces chaos and increases resilience to bring an individual harmony, wellness, and productivity. The ARMS takes an objective perspective on spirituality by assessing an individual’s positive and/ or negative spiritual/ religious dimension with the Religious Attitudes Inventory (e.g., the RAI is capable of identifying extremely unhealthy cult-like spirituality with the rigid, and intolerant religious and militant orthodoxy, practiced by some terrorists, etc.). RAI test results are also integrated into the prognostication scoring system.
The 7 – Dimensions model also promotes Twelve Step Recovery Groups such as Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous along with spiritual and religious recovery activities as a necessary means to maintain outcome effectiveness. The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s most recent research findings regard such active involvement with AA/ NA as the crucial factor responsible for sustained recovery
Conclusion
The 7 – Dimensions Model is not claiming to be the panacea for the ills of addictions treatment progress and outcomes, but it is a step in the right direction for getting clinicians to change the way they practice, by changing treatment facility systems to incorporate evidence-based research findings on effective interventions. The challenge for those interested in conducting outcome evaluations to improve their quality of care is to incorporate a system that will standardize their assessment procedures, treatment programs, and clinical treatment practices. By diligently following a standardized system to obtain base-line outcome statistics of their treatment program effectiveness despite the outcome, they will be able to assess the effectiveness of subsequent treatment interventions.
For more info see:
Poly-Behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) at: http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral_Addictions.html
References
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731. American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition, Retrieved, June 18, 2005, from:
http://www.asam.org/ Arthur Aron, Ph.D., professor, psychology, State University of New York, Stony Brook; Helen Fisher, research professor, department of anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.; Paul Sanberg, Ph.D.,professor, neuroscience, and director, Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair,University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa; June 2005, the Journal of Neurophysiology Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse Prevention In The Managed Care Environment. GORSKI-CENAPS Web Publications. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from: www.tgorski.com Lienard, J. & Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct 23;33(18 Suppl):33-40. Morgan, G.D.; and Fox, B.J. Promoting Cessation of Tobacco Use. The Physician and Sports medicine. Vol 28- No. 12, December 2000. Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.
James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC, is a Hawaii licensed psychologist and certified substance abuse counselor who earned his doctorate in Clinical Psychology. He is credentialed by the National Registry of Health Service Providers in Psychology. He has over 20-years of mental health experience primarily working in the fields of alcohol/ substance abuse and behavioral addictions in hospital, prison, and court settings. He is an adjunct professor of Psychology and also maintains a private practice as a mental health consultant.


Alcohol Treatment Centers Adjuntas PR 00601
Alcohol Treatment Centers Adjuntas PR 00601

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Alcohol Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601

Alcohol Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601 Click To Call Now 844-291-0669

9952 Strawberry Lane
Adjuntas, PR 00601

Alcohol Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601
Alcohol Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601
Alcohol Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601

Drug Abuse And Drug Addiction Facts

Drug abuse and drug addiction is a very serious problem. What starts out as a simple curiosity or use that is considered social may result in a serious addiction. Drug abuse is a very serious problem in many places in the world, particularly the United States. What starts out as a simple curiosity or use that is considered social may result in a serious addiction.Many individuals start using a particular drug and find that they have total control over their habit. However, after a certain period of time, these people may start to lose the control that they once had. Eventually, it will take more and more of the same type of drug for the individual to achieve the same state of euphoria as they experienced previously.An individual who abuses drugs can develop an addiction that is psychological, physical, or emotional. By the time that the drug abuse reaches its peak, or an individual seeks assistance for their drug addiction, the addiction can be a combination of physical, emotional, and psychological conditions. This is due to the fact that the more that an individual is subjected to the drug that they are abusing, the chemistry of the body starts to change. These changes often result in the negative consequences of being unable to control the urges and impulses that are commonly associated with drug abuse.It is common for a drug addiction to result in many biological changes to occur within the body of an abuser. This is why many people who abuse drugs seem to change so drastically. Many individuals experience weight loss or weight gain, a change in personality, changes in moods, memory impairment, loss in general gross motor skills, and many may even develop various types of chronic medical conditions. Whereas the normal person is often motivated by many factors in their life, those that engage in drug abuse have one motivating factor. That is, ultimately, to abuse the drug that they have been experimenting with.Many people who abuse drugs seek treatment for their disease. However, not every person comes out of treatment successfully. Many people must receive treatment more than once to prove effective. It has been discovered that there are very few individuals that seek treatment for their condition based on self-motivation alone. Many individuals who enroll for therapy to alleviate the compulsive drug addiction that they have are forced to do so. The State may order the therapy, or a family member may prompt one to seek help. However, most of the time, many of these individuals successfully complete the treatment.There are many drug abuse treatment programs available. Seeing that every person is different than another person, and some may be more receptive than others, not all treatment methods will prove to be effective for every single person with an addiction to drugs. It is important to not relinquish hope. If one form of treatment does not work for you, there is another form of treatment available that will work for you.If you are looking into drug abuse treatment for yourself, or someone that you care about, you will discover that there are many different types of programs to select from. Many of these are short term, but there are quite a few that are for periods of time that are equal to three months or more. The reason that there are such a large number of long term programs is because these have proven to release the most successful recoveries of drug abuse.It is vital that you understand that a treatment program sets the recovery in motion. There are many other factors that can have a great impact on the individual who is attempting to beat an addiction to drugs. This includes emotional support from friends and members of the family, supervision, the implementation of an accountability partner that they can contact any time day or night, and continued therapy.Drug abuse is a common problem, but it is not a problem that cannot be solved. There are many ways that an individual who suffers from this devastating can get the assistance that they require in order to successfully resolve their problem. It is important for these individuals to understand that the loss of control that they have experienced as a result of the addiction is not a weakness, but a result of the biological changes that occur within the body. Providing resources for assistance and support for the drug abuser is the best contribution that can be given in order to achieve a successful recovery.


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Treatment Centers For Drugs And Alcohol Adjuntas PR 00601 Click To Call Now 844-291-0669

7963 Valley View Road
Adjuntas, PR 00601

Treatment Centers For Drugs And Alcohol Adjuntas PR 00601
Treatment Centers For Drugs And Alcohol Adjuntas PR 00601
Treatment Centers For Drugs And Alcohol Adjuntas PR 00601

Effective Treatment for Drug Addiction – The Time is Now to Change
Strictly speaking, an addiction is a chronic strain and need on that the body develops towards a substance, drug, food or chemical in order to feel normal again. At times this is not as simple as it sounds; what the body deciphers as necessary for life may itself be the very thing that destroys it. Take for instance; drug addiction (which sometimes clinically differs from drug dependency) happens when the body craves the ingestion of a drug in order to diminish its heightened sense of anxiety and when this drug of choice is ingested, inhaled or injected into the blood stream, a sense of calm and serene satisfaction blankets the body and the craving subsides. Drug addiction to such potent drugs as heroin, opium, cocaine and methamphetamines, is one of the most dangerous and potent killers in today’s society and there are various ways in which it can be treated but before we examine that, let us explore why it starts. There are both physical and psychological reasons.
Most drug addicts get into drug use after experiencing some traumatic experience such as the death of a loved one, an accident, the loss of an important relationship or even after learning of the existence of a terminal illness. The addict then goes into a state of denial where he or she needs an additive in order to “cope” with life. Initially, the addict rationalizes that he or she is able to keep the drug usage under control. Sometimes the drug, such as methamphetamine, will promise the user an ecstatic high that blankets the present pain of living and offers a thrill that surpasses all else that the addict has ever known and in so doing attempts to numb reality. Once the addict has solidly settled into regular drug use, the body chemical balance is altered to where it needs the drug in ever increasing amounts in order to produce the same high. At this point, the addict is overwhelmed by feelings of helplessness and no longer has any control. It is at this juncture that he or she needs immediate help. Let us examine the treatment for drug addiction.
Social treatment
There are those of the school of thought that in order to transition the addict to full recovery, the root cause of the addiction has to be tackled. In other words, the hurt, pain and disappointment that caused the addict to fall into addictive behavior has to be addressed. This is where family and friends come in handy in loving and supporting the addict back to life. It is at this point that the addict needs a support system. Attending an addicts’ recovery group such as the 12-step program also serves the same purpose.
Anti-addictive drugs
The same way there exists drugs which induce an addiction, doctors and pharmacists have also formulated drugs that combat that same addiction. These drugs such as methadone, attempt to restore the body’s original chemical balance so that the addictive drug loses its hold on the addict. One downside to these anti-addictive drugs is that they are themselves addictive if taken without a prescription. These need to be taken with caution and intelligently.
Dee Cohen is a licensed social worker and writes at Treatment for Drug Addiction where you can visit and learn more about taking care of yourself at http://www.drug-and-alcohol-rehab-info.com


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Alcohol Drug Treatment Adjuntas PR 00601 Click To Call Now 844-291-0669

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Addictions Recovery Measurement & the Seven Dimensions Model
Introducing a Multidimensional Recovery Measurement Model for Addictions
The sun was thought to revolve around the earth for 1500 years. It wasn’t until a European astronomer named – Nicolaus Copernicus first formulated a modern heliocentric theory of the solar system that we began to change our thinking. This insight ultimately ushered in a major paradigm shift in astronomy and physics. Every model or viewpoint for recovery maintains the integrity and importance of its own position, often to the exclusion of other explanations. For example, there are recovery models and theories for: biological, psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual viewpoints that can all explain human behavior. Unfortunately, these viewpoints may thus “blind” their adherents to alternative interpretations until some new insight is achieved that resolves the problems left unsolved. It is my hope that the 7 – Dimensions model for addictions recovery measurement is a step towards a “Copernicus” type paradigm shift.
Because human behavior is so complex, an attempt to understand the reasons individuals continue to use, and/ or abuse themselves with substances and/ or maladaptive behavioral addictions to the point of developing self-defeating behavior patterns and/ or other life-style dysfunctions or self-harm is enormously difficult to achieve. Many researchers therefore prefer to speak of risk factors that may contribute, but not be sufficient to cause addictions. They point to an eclectic bio-psychosocial approach that involves the multi-dimensional interactions of genetics, biochemistry, psychology, socio-cultural, and spiritual influences. Risk Factors / Contributory Causes / Influences:
1. Genetics (family history) – is known to play a role in causing susceptibility through such biological avenues as metabolic rates and sensitivity to alcohol and/ or other drugs or addictive behaviors.
2. Biochemistry – the discovery of morphine-like substances called endorphins (runners high, etc.) and the so-called “pleasure pathway” – the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway (MCLP). This is the brain center or possible anatomic site underlying addictions at which alcohol and other drugs stimulate to produce euphoria – which then becomes the desired goal to attain (tolerance – loss of control – withdrawal).
3. Psychological Factors – developmental personality traits, vulnerability to stress, and the desire for tension and symptom reduction from various mental health problems and traumatic life experiences.
Our present healthcare system is set up to focus on acute care rather than chronic illnesses. It focuses on a Unitary Syndrome model in which the sole marker of treatment response or success is specific symptom-reduction. Healthcare consumers are increasingly advocating for a multidimensional model that takes into account an array of life-functioning domains that influence patient treatment progress. Evidenced-based meta-analysis studies also purport the prognostic power of life-functioning variables to predict outcome as well as their importance for treatment planning over a unitary model that has had little empirical support. Accurate diagnosis is also dependent on a thorough multidimensional assessment process along with the possible help of a multidisciplinary treatment team approach. Behavioral Medicine practitioners have come to realize that although a disorder may be primarily physical or primarily psychological in nature, it is always a disorder of the whole person – not just of the body or the mind.
American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)
The American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition”, has set the standard in the field of addiction treatment for recognizing a multidimensional, bio-psychosocial assessment process. ASAM developed the following six dimensions specifically for the addictions field with the intent to provide clinicians with decision-making guidelines for patient placement of care:
1. Acute Intoxication and/ or Withdrawal Potential
2. Biomedical Conditions and Complications
3. Emotional/ Behavioral Conditions and Complications
4. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance
5. Relapse / Continued Use Potential
6. Recovery Environment
The ASAM dimensional delineations were developed to assess severity of illness (alcoholism/ drug addiction). The severity of illness level is then used to determine the match to type and intensity of treatment to help guide placement into one of four levels of care. The dimensional assessments would involve asking if the patient’s daily living activities were significantly impaired to interfere with or distract from abstinence, recovery, and/ or stability treatment goals and efforts.
Seven Dimensions Model
In 2004, the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), was published – describing the following seven life-functioning therapeutic activity dimensions for progress outcome measurements. As can be seen below, the ASAM (Severity of Illness) dimensions do not compete with the seven “Life-functioning” dimensions, but rather add depth in describing the Abstinence/ Relapse – 7th Dimension. Each of the seven dimensions has individualized assessment criteria:
1. Social/ Cultural – Dimension
2. Medical/ Physical – Dimension
3. Mental/ Emotional – Dimension
4. Educational/ Occupational – Dimension
5. Spiritual/ Religious – Dimension
6. Legal/ Financial – Dimension
7. Abstinence/ Relapse – Dimension
a. Acute Intoxication and/ or Withdrawal Potential
b. Biomedical Conditions and Complications
c. Emotional/ Behavioral Conditions and Complications
d. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance
e. Relapse / Continued Use Potential
f. Recovery Environment
Note: These seven dimensions have been delineated in the book entitled, Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (Slobodzien, 2005).
The 7 – Dimension recovery model is not based upon an expanded version of the ASAM dimensions. As noted above, it was initially designed to measure patient progress by assessing therapeutic life-functioning activities. Researched may prove it to be effective as a generalized model for recovery, from all pathological diseases, disorders, and disabilities. It’s multidimensional assessment/ treatment process includes the internal interconnection of multiple dimensions from biomedical to spiritual – taking into account the effects of feedback and the existence of each dimension mutually influencing each other simultaneously. Because of the complexity of human nature, treatment progress needs to be initially tailored and guided by an individualized treatment plan based on a comprehensive bio-psychosocial assessment that identifies specific problems, goals, objectives, methods, and timetables for achieving the goals and objectives of treatment.
Life-style addictions may affect many domains of an individual’s functioning and frequently require multi-modal treatment. Goals of treatment include reduction in the use and effects of substances or achievement of abstinence, reduction in the frequency and severity of relapse, and improvement in psychological and social functioning. Real progress requires time, commitment, and discipline in thinking about it, planning for it, working the plan, and monitoring the successes made to prevent relapse. It also requires appropriate interventions and motivating strategies for each progress area of an individual’s life.
7 – Dimensions is a nonlinear, dynamical, non-hierarchical model that focuses on interactions between multiple risk factors and situational determinants similar to catastrophe and chaos theories in predicting and explaining addictive behaviors and relapse. Multiple influences trigger and operate within high-risk situations and influence the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The process of relapse incorporates the interaction between background factors (e.g., family history, social support, years of possible dependence, and co morbid psychopathology), physiological states (e.g., physical withdrawal), cognitive processes (e.g., self-efficacy, cravings, motivation, the abstinence violation effect, outcome expectancies), and coping skills (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). To put it simply, small changes in an individual’s behavior can result in large qualitative changes at the global level and patterns at the global level of a system emerge solely from numerous little interactions. The clinical utility of the 7 – Dimensions recovery model is in its ability to assist health care providers to quickly gather detailed information about an individual’s personality, background, substance use history, affective state, self-efficacy, and coping skills for prognosis, diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measures.
The 7 – Dimensions hypothesis is that there is a multidimensional synergistically negative resistance that individual’s develop to any one form of treatment to a single dimension of their lives, because the effects of an individual’s addiction have dynamically interacted multi-dimensionally. Having the primary focus on one dimension is insufficient. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have failed to accommodate for the multidimensional synergistically negative effects of an individual having multiple addictions, (e.g. nicotine, alcohol, and obesity, etc.). Behavioral addictions interact negatively with each other and with strategies to improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, decrease functional capacity, and promote social isolation. Most treatment theories today involve assessing other dimensions to identify dual diagnosis or co-morbidity diagnoses, or to assess contributing factors that may play a role in the individual’s primary addiction. The 7 Dimensions’ theory is that a multidimensional treatment plan must be devised addressing the possible multiple addictions identified for each one of an individual’s life dimensions in addition to developing specific goals and objectives for each dimension.
The 7 – Dimensions’ theory promotes a synergistically positive effect that can ignite and set free the human spirit when an individual’s life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic system. The reciprocity between spirituality and multidimensional life functioning progress, establish the deepest intrinsic self-image and behavioral changes. The underlying 7 – Dimensions theory purports that the combination of an individuals’ elevated and balanced multiple life-functioning dimensions can produce a synergistically tenacious, resilient, and spiritually positive individual homeostasis. Just as the combination of alcohol and drugs (for example valium) when taken together produce a synergistic effect (potency effects are not added together, but multiplied), and can develop into an addiction or unbalanced life-style, positive treatment effectiveness and successful outcomes are the result of a synergistic relationship with “The Higher Power.”
The 7 – Dimensions model acknowledges that family genetics, and bio-psychosocial, historical, and developmental conditioning factors are difficult and sometimes impossible to be changed within individuals. The standardized performance-based Addictions Recovery Measurement System philosophy incorporates a bio-psychosocial disease model that focuses on a cognitive behavioral perspective in attempting to alter maladaptive thinking and improve a person’s abilities and behaviors to solve problems and plan for sustained recovery. Many healthcare consumers of addiction recovery services have a genetic pre-dispositional history for addiction. They have suffered and continue to suffer from past traumatic life experiences (e.g. physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, etc.) and often present with psychosocial stressors (e.g. occupational stress, family/ marital problems, etc.) leaving them with intense and confusing feelings (e.g. anger, anxiety, bitterness, fear, guilt, grief, loneliness, depression, and inferiority, etc.) that reinforce their already low self-esteem. The complex interaction of these factors can leave the individual with much deeper mental health problems involving self-hatred, self-punishment, self-denial, low self-control, low self-respect, and a severe low self-esteem condition, with an overall (sometimes hidden) negative self-identity.
The 7 – Dimensions model combines a multidimensional force field analysis of an individual’s unique problems to identify positive strength prognostic factors, with behavioral contracting, and a token-“like”- economy point system to accomplish this task. Force field analysis is a process whereby an individual’s behavior is assessed to determine which are the key forces driving the addictive behaviors and which are the key forces restraining the addictive behaviors. A plan is implemented to identify the positive strength restraining factors to somehow manipulate those forces in order to increase the likelihood of moving an individual’s behavior in a pro-social recovery direction. Kurt Lewin (1947) who originally developed the Force Field Theory argued that an issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces – those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces). Any given social event occurs at a given frequency in a given social context, and the frequency of the event is dependent upon forces acting to increase the event as well as forces acting to decrease the event. At any given point in time, there is a “semi-stable equilibrium” whereby the frequency of the social event will remain the same so long as there is neither change in the number or strength of the forces acting to increase the social event nor any change in the forces acting to decrease the event. Equilibrium is altered in either direction by increasing the frequency or intensity of the driving or the restraining forces and thereby creating a corresponding increase or decrease in the rate of an individual’s “addictive” behaviors.
The long-term goal is the health-consumer’s highest optimal functioning, not merely the absence of pathology or symptom reduction. The short-term goal is to change the health care system to accommodate and assimilate to a multidimensional health care perspective. The 7 – Dimensions model addresses the low self-esteem – “addiction – common denominator” by helping individuals establish values, set and accomplish goals, and monitor successful performance.
Additionally, when we consider that addictions involve unbalanced life-styles operating within semi-stable equilibrium force fields, the 7 – Dimensions philosophy promotes that there is a supernatural-like spiritually synergistic effect that occurs when an individuals’ multiple life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic human system. This bilateral spiritual connectedness reduces chaos and increases resilience to bring an individual harmony, wellness, and productivity. The ARMS takes an objective perspective on spirituality by assessing an individual’s positive and/ or negative spiritual/ religious dimension with the Religious Attitudes Inventory (e.g., the RAI is capable of identifying extremely unhealthy cult-like spirituality with the rigid, and intolerant religious and militant orthodoxy, practiced by some terrorists, etc.). RAI test results are also integrated into the prognostication scoring system.
The 7 – Dimensions model also promotes Twelve Step Recovery Groups such as Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous along with spiritual and religious recovery activities as a necessary means to maintain outcome effectiveness. The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s most recent research findings regard such active involvement with AA/ NA as the crucial factor responsible for sustained recovery
Conclusion
The 7 – Dimensions Model is not claiming to be the panacea for the ills of addictions treatment progress and outcomes, but it is a step in the right direction for getting clinicians to change the way they practice, by changing treatment facility systems to incorporate evidence-based research findings on effective interventions. The challenge for those interested in conducting outcome evaluations to improve their quality of care is to incorporate a system that will standardize their assessment procedures, treatment programs, and clinical treatment practices. By diligently following a standardized system to obtain base-line outcome statistics of their treatment program effectiveness despite the outcome, they will be able to assess the effectiveness of subsequent treatment interventions.
For more info see:
Poly-Behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) at: http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral_Addictions.html
References
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731. American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition, Retrieved, June 18, 2005, from:
http://www.asam.org/ Arthur Aron, Ph.D., professor, psychology, State University of New York, Stony Brook; Helen Fisher, research professor, department of anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.; Paul Sanberg, Ph.D.,professor, neuroscience, and director, Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair,University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa; June 2005, the Journal of Neurophysiology Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse Prevention In The Managed Care Environment. GORSKI-CENAPS Web Publications. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from: www.tgorski.com Lienard, J. & Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct 23;33(18 Suppl):33-40. Morgan, G.D.; and Fox, B.J. Promoting Cessation of Tobacco Use. The Physician and Sports medicine. Vol 28- No. 12, December 2000. Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.
James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC, is a Hawaii licensed psychologist and certified substance abuse counselor who earned his doctorate in Clinical Psychology. He is credentialed by the National Registry of Health Service Providers in Psychology. He has over 20-years of mental health experience primarily working in the fields of alcohol/ substance abuse and behavioral addictions in hospital, prison, and court settings. He is an adjunct professor of Psychology and also maintains a private practice as a mental health consultant.


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Prescription Drug Addiction – Which Method of Drug Detox is Best?
Choosing the right drug detox can mean the difference between success and failure.
When looking for help for themselves or a loved one with a prescription drug problem, people are often unsure which detox program is best. Choosing the right program could mean the difference between success and failure in overcoming prescription drug addiction. Different types of drug detox programs are available and each one has its advantages and drawbacks.
For most people drug detox is just the start of full rehabilitation. It is primarily a method of withdrawal, and does not address why the person became addicted in the first place – for that you need a successful drug rehab program. Nevertheless, withdrawal is the necessary first step to rehab and to get someone with a prescription drug addiction problem to even agree to quit, it is often necessary to find a drug detox program that can effectively handle prescription drug addiction detox, is safe, and is as comfortable for the addicted person as possible.
Some drug detox programs simply provide a setting where the person is kept away from all drugs, fed, housed, and watched over to ensure they don’t encounter any serious medical problems. They are basically withdrawing ’cold turkey’, with nothing to relieve the pain or other withdrawal symptoms. For many with a prescription drug addiction problem, this type of drug detox is very hard on the body, and very traumatic.
Another type of drug detox program basically amounts to substituting a different drug for the one the person is already taking. The person arrives at the detox center, is given a drug that helps relieve the symptoms of withdrawal, and leaves the center on the substitute drug – possibly chained to it forever. If they want to get off the new drug, they may well have to go through another drug detox. This is obviously not a good choice for someone with a prescription drug addiction as they have just replaced one prescription for another.
Then we have ’rapid detox’, promoted as the fastest route. You arrive at the facility, usually a hospital, and, after medical examination and other preparations, are put under general anesthetic for between four and six hours – the person is basically ’out’ while a strong drug is pumped through their system.
The most talked about aspect of the rapid detox method is the fact that you are technically done within hours. However, recovery from the anesthetic and physical stress put on the body can take several days, and the person is likely to continue to have side effects and symptoms for weeks. In fact, most people leave rapid detox centers on medications designed to handle the after-effects of the detox.
The best method of detoxing from prescription drugs is the gradual withdrawal technique. The person checks into a medically-supervised, comfortable facility where they are helped through withdrawal by the use of drugs that help alleviate the symptoms. This differs from the ’substitute drug’ method as the person is given the withdrawal drugs only for a short period of time, and is no longer taking that drug when they leave.
There’s no quick fix for drug addiction. The first step is a drug detox program that can successfully deal with prescription drug addiction. Then finish up with a drug rehab program that addresses the reasons behind the addiction. With these steps done, the person can get their life back.
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Now No More to be Depressed, Drug Rehabilitation Centres Are Here

Millions of people are in the shackles of the stultifying drug addiction. It is quite common these days. The worst part of the drug addiction is that once you are addicted to drug, it is very difficult to get out it. It makes life hell out and out. You will not find anyone around you supporting and admiring you. Love and care would be alien to you. Friends and family will turn a deaf year to you. Putting it in other word, it is very easy to get into the mire of addiction and by the same token it is nothing short of an uphill task to get out it. But it does not mean that a drug addict cannot get out of it. It is quite possible to get out of it with the help of the drug rehabilitation centres. They have been doing a world of good to a number of drug addicts. Drug rehabilitation centres are made to help drug addicts get back to their mainstream life. Taking a variety of factors and symptoms of drug patients along nature of addiction, gender and age of the patients and their social record into account, these rehab centres offer them the most suitable program. In point of fact all drug rehabilitation centres are well equipped with all essential facilities which are necessary to treat drug patients on professional levels. Not only this, drug rehabilitation centres have a talented pool of doctors, experienced counsellors, psychoanalysts and many other such professionals who can better understand the need of an addict. As far as the success ratio is concerned, it is not all up to the drug rehabilitation centre, as they cannot do their work properly, if there is no support and cooperation from addict and his or her family is available. As a matter of fact drug rehabilitation program is a long process of treatment in which patients have to undergo various phases such as initial checkups of patients, motivational intervention, detoxification process and the final one is aftercare program.And if all the phases are completed successfully, there stands every chance of getting out of the mire of the addiction. Needless to say, all these phases will take a certain period of time.  But one thing is quite certain that that success is guaranteed, if you join a drug rehabilitation centre after doing all the requisite homework. Last but not least, drug rehabilitation centres are nothing short of boon for millions of drug addicts.


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Addictions Recovery Measurement & the Seven Dimensions Model
Introducing a Multidimensional Recovery Measurement Model for Addictions
The sun was thought to revolve around the earth for 1500 years. It wasn’t until a European astronomer named – Nicolaus Copernicus first formulated a modern heliocentric theory of the solar system that we began to change our thinking. This insight ultimately ushered in a major paradigm shift in astronomy and physics. Every model or viewpoint for recovery maintains the integrity and importance of its own position, often to the exclusion of other explanations. For example, there are recovery models and theories for: biological, psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual viewpoints that can all explain human behavior. Unfortunately, these viewpoints may thus “blind” their adherents to alternative interpretations until some new insight is achieved that resolves the problems left unsolved. It is my hope that the 7 – Dimensions model for addictions recovery measurement is a step towards a “Copernicus” type paradigm shift.
Because human behavior is so complex, an attempt to understand the reasons individuals continue to use, and/ or abuse themselves with substances and/ or maladaptive behavioral addictions to the point of developing self-defeating behavior patterns and/ or other life-style dysfunctions or self-harm is enormously difficult to achieve. Many researchers therefore prefer to speak of risk factors that may contribute, but not be sufficient to cause addictions. They point to an eclectic bio-psychosocial approach that involves the multi-dimensional interactions of genetics, biochemistry, psychology, socio-cultural, and spiritual influences. Risk Factors / Contributory Causes / Influences:
1. Genetics (family history) – is known to play a role in causing susceptibility through such biological avenues as metabolic rates and sensitivity to alcohol and/ or other drugs or addictive behaviors.
2. Biochemistry – the discovery of morphine-like substances called endorphins (runners high, etc.) and the so-called “pleasure pathway” – the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway (MCLP). This is the brain center or possible anatomic site underlying addictions at which alcohol and other drugs stimulate to produce euphoria – which then becomes the desired goal to attain (tolerance – loss of control – withdrawal).
3. Psychological Factors – developmental personality traits, vulnerability to stress, and the desire for tension and symptom reduction from various mental health problems and traumatic life experiences.
Our present healthcare system is set up to focus on acute care rather than chronic illnesses. It focuses on a Unitary Syndrome model in which the sole marker of treatment response or success is specific symptom-reduction. Healthcare consumers are increasingly advocating for a multidimensional model that takes into account an array of life-functioning domains that influence patient treatment progress. Evidenced-based meta-analysis studies also purport the prognostic power of life-functioning variables to predict outcome as well as their importance for treatment planning over a unitary model that has had little empirical support. Accurate diagnosis is also dependent on a thorough multidimensional assessment process along with the possible help of a multidisciplinary treatment team approach. Behavioral Medicine practitioners have come to realize that although a disorder may be primarily physical or primarily psychological in nature, it is always a disorder of the whole person – not just of the body or the mind.
American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)
The American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition”, has set the standard in the field of addiction treatment for recognizing a multidimensional, bio-psychosocial assessment process. ASAM developed the following six dimensions specifically for the addictions field with the intent to provide clinicians with decision-making guidelines for patient placement of care:
1. Acute Intoxication and/ or Withdrawal Potential
2. Biomedical Conditions and Complications
3. Emotional/ Behavioral Conditions and Complications
4. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance
5. Relapse / Continued Use Potential
6. Recovery Environment
The ASAM dimensional delineations were developed to assess severity of illness (alcoholism/ drug addiction). The severity of illness level is then used to determine the match to type and intensity of treatment to help guide placement into one of four levels of care. The dimensional assessments would involve asking if the patient’s daily living activities were significantly impaired to interfere with or distract from abstinence, recovery, and/ or stability treatment goals and efforts.
Seven Dimensions Model
In 2004, the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), was published – describing the following seven life-functioning therapeutic activity dimensions for progress outcome measurements. As can be seen below, the ASAM (Severity of Illness) dimensions do not compete with the seven “Life-functioning” dimensions, but rather add depth in describing the Abstinence/ Relapse – 7th Dimension. Each of the seven dimensions has individualized assessment criteria:
1. Social/ Cultural – Dimension
2. Medical/ Physical – Dimension
3. Mental/ Emotional – Dimension
4. Educational/ Occupational – Dimension
5. Spiritual/ Religious – Dimension
6. Legal/ Financial – Dimension
7. Abstinence/ Relapse – Dimension
a. Acute Intoxication and/ or Withdrawal Potential
b. Biomedical Conditions and Complications
c. Emotional/ Behavioral Conditions and Complications
d. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance
e. Relapse / Continued Use Potential
f. Recovery Environment
Note: These seven dimensions have been delineated in the book entitled, Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (Slobodzien, 2005).
The 7 – Dimension recovery model is not based upon an expanded version of the ASAM dimensions. As noted above, it was initially designed to measure patient progress by assessing therapeutic life-functioning activities. Researched may prove it to be effective as a generalized model for recovery, from all pathological diseases, disorders, and disabilities. It’s multidimensional assessment/ treatment process includes the internal interconnection of multiple dimensions from biomedical to spiritual – taking into account the effects of feedback and the existence of each dimension mutually influencing each other simultaneously. Because of the complexity of human nature, treatment progress needs to be initially tailored and guided by an individualized treatment plan based on a comprehensive bio-psychosocial assessment that identifies specific problems, goals, objectives, methods, and timetables for achieving the goals and objectives of treatment.
Life-style addictions may affect many domains of an individual’s functioning and frequently require multi-modal treatment. Goals of treatment include reduction in the use and effects of substances or achievement of abstinence, reduction in the frequency and severity of relapse, and improvement in psychological and social functioning. Real progress requires time, commitment, and discipline in thinking about it, planning for it, working the plan, and monitoring the successes made to prevent relapse. It also requires appropriate interventions and motivating strategies for each progress area of an individual’s life.
7 – Dimensions is a nonlinear, dynamical, non-hierarchical model that focuses on interactions between multiple risk factors and situational determinants similar to catastrophe and chaos theories in predicting and explaining addictive behaviors and relapse. Multiple influences trigger and operate within high-risk situations and influence the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The process of relapse incorporates the interaction between background factors (e.g., family history, social support, years of possible dependence, and co morbid psychopathology), physiological states (e.g., physical withdrawal), cognitive processes (e.g., self-efficacy, cravings, motivation, the abstinence violation effect, outcome expectancies), and coping skills (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). To put it simply, small changes in an individual’s behavior can result in large qualitative changes at the global level and patterns at the global level of a system emerge solely from numerous little interactions. The clinical utility of the 7 – Dimensions recovery model is in its ability to assist health care providers to quickly gather detailed information about an individual’s personality, background, substance use history, affective state, self-efficacy, and coping skills for prognosis, diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measures.
The 7 – Dimensions hypothesis is that there is a multidimensional synergistically negative resistance that individual’s develop to any one form of treatment to a single dimension of their lives, because the effects of an individual’s addiction have dynamically interacted multi-dimensionally. Having the primary focus on one dimension is insufficient. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have failed to accommodate for the multidimensional synergistically negative effects of an individual having multiple addictions, (e.g. nicotine, alcohol, and obesity, etc.). Behavioral addictions interact negatively with each other and with strategies to improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, decrease functional capacity, and promote social isolation. Most treatment theories today involve assessing other dimensions to identify dual diagnosis or co-morbidity diagnoses, or to assess contributing factors that may play a role in the individual’s primary addiction. The 7 Dimensions’ theory is that a multidimensional treatment plan must be devised addressing the possible multiple addictions identified for each one of an individual’s life dimensions in addition to developing specific goals and objectives for each dimension.
The 7 – Dimensions’ theory promotes a synergistically positive effect that can ignite and set free the human spirit when an individual’s life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic system. The reciprocity between spirituality and multidimensional life functioning progress, establish the deepest intrinsic self-image and behavioral changes. The underlying 7 – Dimensions theory purports that the combination of an individuals’ elevated and balanced multiple life-functioning dimensions can produce a synergistically tenacious, resilient, and spiritually positive individual homeostasis. Just as the combination of alcohol and drugs (for example valium) when taken together produce a synergistic effect (potency effects are not added together, but multiplied), and can develop into an addiction or unbalanced life-style, positive treatment effectiveness and successful outcomes are the result of a synergistic relationship with “The Higher Power.”
The 7 – Dimensions model acknowledges that family genetics, and bio-psychosocial, historical, and developmental conditioning factors are difficult and sometimes impossible to be changed within individuals. The standardized performance-based Addictions Recovery Measurement System philosophy incorporates a bio-psychosocial disease model that focuses on a cognitive behavioral perspective in attempting to alter maladaptive thinking and improve a person’s abilities and behaviors to solve problems and plan for sustained recovery. Many healthcare consumers of addiction recovery services have a genetic pre-dispositional history for addiction. They have suffered and continue to suffer from past traumatic life experiences (e.g. physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, etc.) and often present with psychosocial stressors (e.g. occupational stress, family/ marital problems, etc.) leaving them with intense and confusing feelings (e.g. anger, anxiety, bitterness, fear, guilt, grief, loneliness, depression, and inferiority, etc.) that reinforce their already low self-esteem. The complex interaction of these factors can leave the individual with much deeper mental health problems involving self-hatred, self-punishment, self-denial, low self-control, low self-respect, and a severe low self-esteem condition, with an overall (sometimes hidden) negative self-identity.
The 7 – Dimensions model combines a multidimensional force field analysis of an individual’s unique problems to identify positive strength prognostic factors, with behavioral contracting, and a token-“like”- economy point system to accomplish this task. Force field analysis is a process whereby an individual’s behavior is assessed to determine which are the key forces driving the addictive behaviors and which are the key forces restraining the addictive behaviors. A plan is implemented to identify the positive strength restraining factors to somehow manipulate those forces in order to increase the likelihood of moving an individual’s behavior in a pro-social recovery direction. Kurt Lewin (1947) who originally developed the Force Field Theory argued that an issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces – those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces). Any given social event occurs at a given frequency in a given social context, and the frequency of the event is dependent upon forces acting to increase the event as well as forces acting to decrease the event. At any given point in time, there is a “semi-stable equilibrium” whereby the frequency of the social event will remain the same so long as there is neither change in the number or strength of the forces acting to increase the social event nor any change in the forces acting to decrease the event. Equilibrium is altered in either direction by increasing the frequency or intensity of the driving or the restraining forces and thereby creating a corresponding increase or decrease in the rate of an individual’s “addictive” behaviors.
The long-term goal is the health-consumer’s highest optimal functioning, not merely the absence of pathology or symptom reduction. The short-term goal is to change the health care system to accommodate and assimilate to a multidimensional health care perspective. The 7 – Dimensions model addresses the low self-esteem – “addiction – common denominator” by helping individuals establish values, set and accomplish goals, and monitor successful performance.
Additionally, when we consider that addictions involve unbalanced life-styles operating within semi-stable equilibrium force fields, the 7 – Dimensions philosophy promotes that there is a supernatural-like spiritually synergistic effect that occurs when an individuals’ multiple life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic human system. This bilateral spiritual connectedness reduces chaos and increases resilience to bring an individual harmony, wellness, and productivity. The ARMS takes an objective perspective on spirituality by assessing an individual’s positive and/ or negative spiritual/ religious dimension with the Religious Attitudes Inventory (e.g., the RAI is capable of identifying extremely unhealthy cult-like spirituality with the rigid, and intolerant religious and militant orthodoxy, practiced by some terrorists, etc.). RAI test results are also integrated into the prognostication scoring system.
The 7 – Dimensions model also promotes Twelve Step Recovery Groups such as Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous along with spiritual and religious recovery activities as a necessary means to maintain outcome effectiveness. The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s most recent research findings regard such active involvement with AA/ NA as the crucial factor responsible for sustained recovery
Conclusion
The 7 – Dimensions Model is not claiming to be the panacea for the ills of addictions treatment progress and outcomes, but it is a step in the right direction for getting clinicians to change the way they practice, by changing treatment facility systems to incorporate evidence-based research findings on effective interventions. The challenge for those interested in conducting outcome evaluations to improve their quality of care is to incorporate a system that will standardize their assessment procedures, treatment programs, and clinical treatment practices. By diligently following a standardized system to obtain base-line outcome statistics of their treatment program effectiveness despite the outcome, they will be able to assess the effectiveness of subsequent treatment interventions.
For more info see:
Poly-Behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) at: http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral_Addictions.html
References
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731. American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition, Retrieved, June 18, 2005, from:
http://www.asam.org/ Arthur Aron, Ph.D., professor, psychology, State University of New York, Stony Brook; Helen Fisher, research professor, department of anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.; Paul Sanberg, Ph.D.,professor, neuroscience, and director, Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair,University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa; June 2005, the Journal of Neurophysiology Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse Prevention In The Managed Care Environment. GORSKI-CENAPS Web Publications. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from: www.tgorski.com Lienard, J. & Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct 23;33(18 Suppl):33-40. Morgan, G.D.; and Fox, B.J. Promoting Cessation of Tobacco Use. The Physician and Sports medicine. Vol 28- No. 12, December 2000. Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.
James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC, is a Hawaii licensed psychologist and certified substance abuse counselor who earned his doctorate in Clinical Psychology. He is credentialed by the National Registry of Health Service Providers in Psychology. He has over 20-years of mental health experience primarily working in the fields of alcohol/ substance abuse and behavioral addictions in hospital, prison, and court settings. He is an adjunct professor of Psychology and also maintains a private practice as a mental health consultant.


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Alcohol And Drug Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601
Alcohol And Drug Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601

Things to Consider While Choosing the Best Drug Rehabilitation Centre

It goes without saying that there are various kinds of addictions but drug addiction is most excruciating and destructive among all types. Drug addiction paralyses the mind through and through.  If you are prone to the compulsive use of drugs, you are left with no choice but to continue with them. And because of this addiction, you can be inflicted with a cancerous malady which would be enough to make the whole world around you turns a dismay face toward you.If you think that it is very difficult to get out of the mire of addiction, you are barking under the wrong tree. You can easily get out of the addiction and for this none can be a better recourse than a drug rehabilitation program. The call for of attending a drug rehabilitation program becomes necessary for a variety of reasons. It has been usually seen that at the chronic stage of addiction, addicts are not able to have any curb on the use of drugs or alcohol and as a result of that they turn aggressive and offensive in their behaviour which keep them detached from their family, friends and loved ones. But here the point in question is that how to choose the best drug rehabilitation centre. Well, if you go out and look around yourself, you will find a number of drug rehabilitation centres. All will be offering you varieties of drug rehabilitation programs like outpatient, inpatient, residential, long-term and short-term. But there are few things that you are required to keep in mind while choosing the best drug addiction centre.  While choosing the right centre for yourself or your near and dear ones, you must take a few things into your consideration such as individual’s age, drugs used, insurance if any, any criminal offenses so far, are they willing to get back their former self?, previous history of attending any drug rehab program, family support and Friends and many more like them. If you keep these things in your mind, there is no doubt about it that you will be able to choose the best drug rehabilitation centre, because they will help you decide which one suit them best. To be 100% confirmed about the benefits of the drug rehabilitation centre, you had better enquire about some more significant things like kinds of medication methods employed by them, the counsellor-to-patient ratio, length of treatment, their way of managing cold turkey, involvement of family, the total costs and the like. When all is said and done, keep these things in your mind and find the best drug rehabilitation centre for yourself or your near and dear ones, if addicted. 


Alcohol And Drug Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601
Alcohol And Drug Rehab Adjuntas PR 00601

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Suboxone Opiate Adjuntas PR 00601 Click To Call Now 844-291-0669

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Why Is a Rehab Center Necessary?

Addiction or getting really used to anything is bad, especially drug addiction is considered very harmful and it destroys the person completely. It may even lead to loss of one’s life. Addiction especially drug addiction is a hazard, but in the modernized world one may find a number of solutions to such a difficult problem. This serious and life taking problem can be treated in a number of ways but the most effective and efficient solution to this problem is the drug rehabilitation center. In the drug rehab program one is treated in such a manner what we call is detoxification that makes one capable enough to spend a normal life as ever before once again.Once a person gets addicted to drugs it is not very easy to quit drugs. Even a person with a very strong will power finds it really difficult to come out of this addiction. It’s all in the mind and thus it is the mind that plays a most significant role. But that is for sure that once anyone makes up his mind to take the treatment and go to the drug rehabilitation center then the treatment is rest assured. What is required is the determination to get rid of this disease it is always possible as the word impossible does not exist in today’s modernized world. Howsoever, most of the people who are addicted don’t cooperate with the family who keep on trying so as to convince the person to undergo the treatment. After all the patience and hard wok if the person gets convinced the initial and the most important step is to search for the most appropriate rehab center.  Mild-mannered addiction is very normal for most of the people who intake alcohol or smoke once in a while because they are not addicted to it. It’s once in a while for them. Once it is observed that addiction is ruling one’s life, one need to consider the matter seriously. Addiction to any thing not only disturbs the individual but it affects the family to a great extent. An addicted person may occasionally act in a much unexpected manner and even the health of the person may hinder his daily routine. Howsoever, one could easily select from amongst the various programs available at the various drug rehabilitation centers all over and thus health is slowly recovered.


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Addictions Recovery Measurement & the Seven Dimensions Model
Introducing a Multidimensional Recovery Measurement Model for Addictions
The sun was thought to revolve around the earth for 1500 years. It wasn’t until a European astronomer named – Nicolaus Copernicus first formulated a modern heliocentric theory of the solar system that we began to change our thinking. This insight ultimately ushered in a major paradigm shift in astronomy and physics. Every model or viewpoint for recovery maintains the integrity and importance of its own position, often to the exclusion of other explanations. For example, there are recovery models and theories for: biological, psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual viewpoints that can all explain human behavior. Unfortunately, these viewpoints may thus “blind” their adherents to alternative interpretations until some new insight is achieved that resolves the problems left unsolved. It is my hope that the 7 – Dimensions model for addictions recovery measurement is a step towards a “Copernicus” type paradigm shift.
Because human behavior is so complex, an attempt to understand the reasons individuals continue to use, and/ or abuse themselves with substances and/ or maladaptive behavioral addictions to the point of developing self-defeating behavior patterns and/ or other life-style dysfunctions or self-harm is enormously difficult to achieve. Many researchers therefore prefer to speak of risk factors that may contribute, but not be sufficient to cause addictions. They point to an eclectic bio-psychosocial approach that involves the multi-dimensional interactions of genetics, biochemistry, psychology, socio-cultural, and spiritual influences. Risk Factors / Contributory Causes / Influences:
1. Genetics (family history) – is known to play a role in causing susceptibility through such biological avenues as metabolic rates and sensitivity to alcohol and/ or other drugs or addictive behaviors.
2. Biochemistry – the discovery of morphine-like substances called endorphins (runners high, etc.) and the so-called “pleasure pathway” – the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway (MCLP). This is the brain center or possible anatomic site underlying addictions at which alcohol and other drugs stimulate to produce euphoria – which then becomes the desired goal to attain (tolerance – loss of control – withdrawal).
3. Psychological Factors – developmental personality traits, vulnerability to stress, and the desire for tension and symptom reduction from various mental health problems and traumatic life experiences.
Our present healthcare system is set up to focus on acute care rather than chronic illnesses. It focuses on a Unitary Syndrome model in which the sole marker of treatment response or success is specific symptom-reduction. Healthcare consumers are increasingly advocating for a multidimensional model that takes into account an array of life-functioning domains that influence patient treatment progress. Evidenced-based meta-analysis studies also purport the prognostic power of life-functioning variables to predict outcome as well as their importance for treatment planning over a unitary model that has had little empirical support. Accurate diagnosis is also dependent on a thorough multidimensional assessment process along with the possible help of a multidisciplinary treatment team approach. Behavioral Medicine practitioners have come to realize that although a disorder may be primarily physical or primarily psychological in nature, it is always a disorder of the whole person – not just of the body or the mind.
American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)
The American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition”, has set the standard in the field of addiction treatment for recognizing a multidimensional, bio-psychosocial assessment process. ASAM developed the following six dimensions specifically for the addictions field with the intent to provide clinicians with decision-making guidelines for patient placement of care:
1. Acute Intoxication and/ or Withdrawal Potential
2. Biomedical Conditions and Complications
3. Emotional/ Behavioral Conditions and Complications
4. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance
5. Relapse / Continued Use Potential
6. Recovery Environment
The ASAM dimensional delineations were developed to assess severity of illness (alcoholism/ drug addiction). The severity of illness level is then used to determine the match to type and intensity of treatment to help guide placement into one of four levels of care. The dimensional assessments would involve asking if the patient’s daily living activities were significantly impaired to interfere with or distract from abstinence, recovery, and/ or stability treatment goals and efforts.
Seven Dimensions Model
In 2004, the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), was published – describing the following seven life-functioning therapeutic activity dimensions for progress outcome measurements. As can be seen below, the ASAM (Severity of Illness) dimensions do not compete with the seven “Life-functioning” dimensions, but rather add depth in describing the Abstinence/ Relapse – 7th Dimension. Each of the seven dimensions has individualized assessment criteria:
1. Social/ Cultural – Dimension
2. Medical/ Physical – Dimension
3. Mental/ Emotional – Dimension
4. Educational/ Occupational – Dimension
5. Spiritual/ Religious – Dimension
6. Legal/ Financial – Dimension
7. Abstinence/ Relapse – Dimension
a. Acute Intoxication and/ or Withdrawal Potential
b. Biomedical Conditions and Complications
c. Emotional/ Behavioral Conditions and Complications
d. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance
e. Relapse / Continued Use Potential
f. Recovery Environment
Note: These seven dimensions have been delineated in the book entitled, Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (Slobodzien, 2005).
The 7 – Dimension recovery model is not based upon an expanded version of the ASAM dimensions. As noted above, it was initially designed to measure patient progress by assessing therapeutic life-functioning activities. Researched may prove it to be effective as a generalized model for recovery, from all pathological diseases, disorders, and disabilities. It’s multidimensional assessment/ treatment process includes the internal interconnection of multiple dimensions from biomedical to spiritual – taking into account the effects of feedback and the existence of each dimension mutually influencing each other simultaneously. Because of the complexity of human nature, treatment progress needs to be initially tailored and guided by an individualized treatment plan based on a comprehensive bio-psychosocial assessment that identifies specific problems, goals, objectives, methods, and timetables for achieving the goals and objectives of treatment.
Life-style addictions may affect many domains of an individual’s functioning and frequently require multi-modal treatment. Goals of treatment include reduction in the use and effects of substances or achievement of abstinence, reduction in the frequency and severity of relapse, and improvement in psychological and social functioning. Real progress requires time, commitment, and discipline in thinking about it, planning for it, working the plan, and monitoring the successes made to prevent relapse. It also requires appropriate interventions and motivating strategies for each progress area of an individual’s life.
7 – Dimensions is a nonlinear, dynamical, non-hierarchical model that focuses on interactions between multiple risk factors and situational determinants similar to catastrophe and chaos theories in predicting and explaining addictive behaviors and relapse. Multiple influences trigger and operate within high-risk situations and influence the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The process of relapse incorporates the interaction between background factors (e.g., family history, social support, years of possible dependence, and co morbid psychopathology), physiological states (e.g., physical withdrawal), cognitive processes (e.g., self-efficacy, cravings, motivation, the abstinence violation effect, outcome expectancies), and coping skills (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). To put it simply, small changes in an individual’s behavior can result in large qualitative changes at the global level and patterns at the global level of a system emerge solely from numerous little interactions. The clinical utility of the 7 – Dimensions recovery model is in its ability to assist health care providers to quickly gather detailed information about an individual’s personality, background, substance use history, affective state, self-efficacy, and coping skills for prognosis, diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measures.
The 7 – Dimensions hypothesis is that there is a multidimensional synergistically negative resistance that individual’s develop to any one form of treatment to a single dimension of their lives, because the effects of an individual’s addiction have dynamically interacted multi-dimensionally. Having the primary focus on one dimension is insufficient. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have failed to accommodate for the multidimensional synergistically negative effects of an individual having multiple addictions, (e.g. nicotine, alcohol, and obesity, etc.). Behavioral addictions interact negatively with each other and with strategies to improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, decrease functional capacity, and promote social isolation. Most treatment theories today involve assessing other dimensions to identify dual diagnosis or co-morbidity diagnoses, or to assess contributing factors that may play a role in the individual’s primary addiction. The 7 Dimensions’ theory is that a multidimensional treatment plan must be devised addressing the possible multiple addictions identified for each one of an individual’s life dimensions in addition to developing specific goals and objectives for each dimension.
The 7 – Dimensions’ theory promotes a synergistically positive effect that can ignite and set free the human spirit when an individual’s life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic system. The reciprocity between spirituality and multidimensional life functioning progress, establish the deepest intrinsic self-image and behavioral changes. The underlying 7 – Dimensions theory purports that the combination of an individuals’ elevated and balanced multiple life-functioning dimensions can produce a synergistically tenacious, resilient, and spiritually positive individual homeostasis. Just as the combination of alcohol and drugs (for example valium) when taken together produce a synergistic effect (potency effects are not added together, but multiplied), and can develop into an addiction or unbalanced life-style, positive treatment effectiveness and successful outcomes are the result of a synergistic relationship with “The Higher Power.”
The 7 – Dimensions model acknowledges that family genetics, and bio-psychosocial, historical, and developmental conditioning factors are difficult and sometimes impossible to be changed within individuals. The standardized performance-based Addictions Recovery Measurement System philosophy incorporates a bio-psychosocial disease model that focuses on a cognitive behavioral perspective in attempting to alter maladaptive thinking and improve a person’s abilities and behaviors to solve problems and plan for sustained recovery. Many healthcare consumers of addiction recovery services have a genetic pre-dispositional history for addiction. They have suffered and continue to suffer from past traumatic life experiences (e.g. physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, etc.) and often present with psychosocial stressors (e.g. occupational stress, family/ marital problems, etc.) leaving them with intense and confusing feelings (e.g. anger, anxiety, bitterness, fear, guilt, grief, loneliness, depression, and inferiority, etc.) that reinforce their already low self-esteem. The complex interaction of these factors can leave the individual with much deeper mental health problems involving self-hatred, self-punishment, self-denial, low self-control, low self-respect, and a severe low self-esteem condition, with an overall (sometimes hidden) negative self-identity.
The 7 – Dimensions model combines a multidimensional force field analysis of an individual’s unique problems to identify positive strength prognostic factors, with behavioral contracting, and a token-“like”- economy point system to accomplish this task. Force field analysis is a process whereby an individual’s behavior is assessed to determine which are the key forces driving the addictive behaviors and which are the key forces restraining the addictive behaviors. A plan is implemented to identify the positive strength restraining factors to somehow manipulate those forces in order to increase the likelihood of moving an individual’s behavior in a pro-social recovery direction. Kurt Lewin (1947) who originally developed the Force Field Theory argued that an issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces – those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces). Any given social event occurs at a given frequency in a given social context, and the frequency of the event is dependent upon forces acting to increase the event as well as forces acting to decrease the event. At any given point in time, there is a “semi-stable equilibrium” whereby the frequency of the social event will remain the same so long as there is neither change in the number or strength of the forces acting to increase the social event nor any change in the forces acting to decrease the event. Equilibrium is altered in either direction by increasing the frequency or intensity of the driving or the restraining forces and thereby creating a corresponding increase or decrease in the rate of an individual’s “addictive” behaviors.
The long-term goal is the health-consumer’s highest optimal functioning, not merely the absence of pathology or symptom reduction. The short-term goal is to change the health care system to accommodate and assimilate to a multidimensional health care perspective. The 7 – Dimensions model addresses the low self-esteem – “addiction – common denominator” by helping individuals establish values, set and accomplish goals, and monitor successful performance.
Additionally, when we consider that addictions involve unbalanced life-styles operating within semi-stable equilibrium force fields, the 7 – Dimensions philosophy promotes that there is a supernatural-like spiritually synergistic effect that occurs when an individuals’ multiple life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic human system. This bilateral spiritual connectedness reduces chaos and increases resilience to bring an individual harmony, wellness, and productivity. The ARMS takes an objective perspective on spirituality by assessing an individual’s positive and/ or negative spiritual/ religious dimension with the Religious Attitudes Inventory (e.g., the RAI is capable of identifying extremely unhealthy cult-like spirituality with the rigid, and intolerant religious and militant orthodoxy, practiced by some terrorists, etc.). RAI test results are also integrated into the prognostication scoring system.
The 7 – Dimensions model also promotes Twelve Step Recovery Groups such as Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous along with spiritual and religious recovery activities as a necessary means to maintain outcome effectiveness. The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s most recent research findings regard such active involvement with AA/ NA as the crucial factor responsible for sustained recovery
Conclusion
The 7 – Dimensions Model is not claiming to be the panacea for the ills of addictions treatment progress and outcomes, but it is a step in the right direction for getting clinicians to change the way they practice, by changing treatment facility systems to incorporate evidence-based research findings on effective interventions. The challenge for those interested in conducting outcome evaluations to improve their quality of care is to incorporate a system that will standardize their assessment procedures, treatment programs, and clinical treatment practices. By diligently following a standardized system to obtain base-line outcome statistics of their treatment program effectiveness despite the outcome, they will be able to assess the effectiveness of subsequent treatment interventions.
For more info see:
Poly-Behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) at: http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral_Addictions.html
References
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731. American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition, Retrieved, June 18, 2005, from:
http://www.asam.org/ Arthur Aron, Ph.D., professor, psychology, State University of New York, Stony Brook; Helen Fisher, research professor, department of anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.; Paul Sanberg, Ph.D.,professor, neuroscience, and director, Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair,University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa; June 2005, the Journal of Neurophysiology Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse Prevention In The Managed Care Environment. GORSKI-CENAPS Web Publications. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from: www.tgorski.com Lienard, J. & Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct 23;33(18 Suppl):33-40. Morgan, G.D.; and Fox, B.J. Promoting Cessation of Tobacco Use. The Physician and Sports medicine. Vol 28- No. 12, December 2000. Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.
James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC, is a Hawaii licensed psychologist and certified substance abuse counselor who earned his doctorate in Clinical Psychology. He is credentialed by the National Registry of Health Service Providers in Psychology. He has over 20-years of mental health experience primarily working in the fields of alcohol/ substance abuse and behavioral addictions in hospital, prison, and court settings. He is an adjunct professor of Psychology and also maintains a private practice as a mental health consultant.


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